Each of these groups of exercises has their place and purpose, pros and cons. Depending on your goals and physical condition.
Free weights require stabilisation and are very affective at improving functional strength.
Cables require less stabilisation than free weights are slightly safer when training around injuries. Cables keep muscles under tension more effectively than free weights.
Machine weights are safer than other methods. It requires no stabilisation so is a poor method for gaining functional strength. It is however a safe way to build muscle.
Bodyweight exercises require the most stabilisation. If these are loaded they are the most affective way of building functional strength. These are a must do what ever your goal as most of these work the full body.
Select wisely to get better results and achieve your goals.